初中英語閱讀技巧總結

 提高初中英語閱讀能力的六種方法

1. 講究閱讀方法

(1)依據主題句定短文的中心:任意一篇文章通常是圍繞一個中心展開并且由段落組成的;段落之間有著內在的緊密聯系,而表達段落主題的句子叫主題句,通常置于段落的開頭,有時在段落末尾和中間;其它的句子是用來說明和闡述主題句的;若把一個個主題句加以整理,你能悟出其中心思想,同時還可以回避、排除個別生詞、難句(等困難信號)所帶來的干擾,但也有一些文章的中心思想常貫穿在全文中,因而要綜觀全文,對全文有一個透徹的理解才行。

  如:

My friend Matt and I arrived at the Activity Centre on Friday evening. The accommodation wasn’t wonderful, but we had everything we needed (beds, blankets, food ), and we were pleased to be out of the city and in the fresh air.

On Saturday morning we met the other ten members of our group. Cameron had come along with two friends, Kevin and Simon, while sisters Carole and Lynn had come with Amanda. There were some other members I didn’t know. We had come from different places and none of us knew the area.

We knew we were going to spend the weekend outdoors, but none of us was sure exactly how. Half of us spent the morning caving while the others went rock-climbing and then we changed at lunchtime. Matt and I went to the caves (巖洞) first. Climbing out was harder than going in, but after a good deal of pushing, we were out at last. Though we were covered with mud, we were pleased and excited by what we’d done.

This passage mainly talks about ______________.

A. the writer’s friends at the Activity Center

B. the writer’s experience at the Activity Center

C. outdoor sports at the Activity Center

D. how to go rock-climbing and caving

[參考答案B] 上述這段短文的中心是說明“the writer’s experience at the Activity Center.”。作者以及作者的朋友,還有組上的其他一些成員一起在活動中心度周末的一些活動以及感受。

(2) 掌握具體事實和重要細節:閱讀文章時,要養成辨認和記憶具體事實、重要細節的習慣。因為具體事實、重要細節是主題句的擴展、補充、說明或例證,是用來支持和說明中心思想的,而且是閱讀理解測試的重要組成部分。

  如:

If someone asks me: “Do you like music?” I’m sure I will answer him or her: “Of course, I do.” because I think music is an important part of our lives.

Different people have different ideas about music. For me, I like rock music because it’s so exciting. And my favorite rock band, the “Foxy Ladies” (酷妹) is one of the most famous rock bands in the world. I also like pop music. My classmate LiLan loves dance music, because she enjoys dancing. My best friend, Jane, likes jazz music (爵士樂). She thinks jazz is really cool.

“I like dance music and rock very much.” says my brother, “because they are amazing.”

But my mother thinks rock is boring. “I like some relaxing (輕松的) music,” she says. That’s why she likes country music, I think.

①The writer likes music because he thinks ____________.

A. it’s an exciting part of our lives?

B. it’s an amazing part of our lives

C. it’s an important part of our lives

②What kind of music does the writer like??

A. Rock and pop music. B. Rock and dance music.?C. Jazz and country music.

③Who likes dancing??

A. The writer.?B. Li Lan.?C. Jane.

④The writer’s mother thinks that country music is __________.

A. amazing?B. boring?C. relaxing

⑤ How many people’s ideas about music are talked about in this passage (短文)?

A. 4. B. 5. C. 6.

  這是幾道重要事實和細節的辨認題,全是圍繞短文的主題句

“Different people have different ideas about music”來展開說明的,起補充舉例作用。答案分別為 ① C ② A ③ B ④ C ⑤ B。

(3) 運用構詞法、語境線索等幫助來推測關鍵詞義:在閱讀文章的過程中,常常會遇到一些生詞,如果不懂得這些詞義就會妨礙理解,但大部分生詞的詞義是可以根據上下文,結合構詞法、借助文章中的語境線索幫助在理解基礎上猜測其詞義,這有助于加快閱讀速度,提高閱讀理解能力。

2. 訓練閱讀速度

  在閱讀中,我們或多或少會碰到一些生詞和不熟悉的短語,這些生詞和短語會妨礙我們對文章中心的理解,但我們總是查閱詞典也會影響閱讀的速度。為了不查詞典又能破解生詞詞義,并理解好文章的中心,要根據構詞法判斷詞義。如:

This material is unreadable.中 unreadable是生詞。可以根據詞根 read ,知道 un和 able分別為前綴和后綴,那么 unreadable的意義就不難猜測了;還可以培養根據生詞與上下文的關系來猜測其意義。生詞所在的句子、段落會提供很多的暗示和線索,依據這些暗示和線索就可以理解生詞的詞義了。如:同義詞反義詞線索;解釋性線索;例證性線索;標點符號線索等。如:

A. The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.

  定語從句中的

looks after sheep 就解釋了 herdsman的詞義為“牧人”。

B. Like her younger sister who is gregarious, Alice also likes to make friends.句首的 like(像)這個語境線索說明:句中的gregarious與 likes to make friends意義相近。

  通過這些方式可以幫助加快閱讀速度,進一步提高閱讀正確率。

3. 改進閱讀方式

  (

1)預測:培養依據文章標題(副標題)、插圖以及相關的背景知識和社會生活經驗,對文章的大致內容預測以及可能涉及到的詞匯,然后閱讀文章的第一段,并對自己的預測進行驗證、糾正,同時抓住主題句、關鍵詞,從而更好地從整體上去理解和把握文章的中心。

  (

2)略讀:快速瀏覽全文,領會文章大意,辨析文體,掌握篇章結構,進而抓住文章的中心。

  (

3)查讀:在瀏覽全文的基礎上進行查讀,以回答個別事實細節性的問題。有些細節性的問題不能直接在短文中找到答案,必須進行必要的綜合、歸納、轉換才能獲得,也就是要在直接可獲得的事實和細節的基礎上經過綜合、歸納、轉換間接地獲得所需要的事實和細節。它通常涉及數據、時間、人稱、代詞的指代、動作的行為的關聯、動作行為者與承受者、地點和空間、表態方式、因果、條件、內涵與外延等。

4. 擴大英語閱讀量

  目前初中英語教科書所提供的閱讀量較以前有較大幅度的增加,在題材、體裁的選取,功能與話題的設計方面均注意到多樣化和廣泛性;但教材中的閱讀量離大綱和課標要求的閱讀量遠遠不夠。課標五級閱讀要求規定:除教材外,課外閱讀量應

達到

15萬字以上。通過廣泛的閱讀不僅有利于學生擴大詞匯量,豐富語言知識、開闊視野,開拓思路,還有利于了解英美等國的文化背景、生活風俗、思維習慣及英語特有的語言表達方式,從而提高閱讀理解能力。

  泛讀時,要對閱讀材料中的各種語言現象不作全面精細認真的分析,而是根據已掌握的語言知識盡快地獲取所需要的信息。

5

. 加強評估

測試

  通過

實戰

可以檢測閱讀理解實際能力與水平,可以摸清強項與不足,從而為進一步培養閱讀能力提供依據。閱讀測試文章選材要廣泛多樣,篇幅要恰當,難易要適中;在題型上做到主觀性題型和客觀性題型兼顧,客觀性測試題要能通過閱讀文章直接找到答案;主觀性測試題要能在閱讀短文后通過上下文,運用聯想、比較、歸納、分析判斷文章的隱含意義。測試后要認真進行分析和總結,做到發現問題及時解決,以便進一步提高。

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